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InfoMedSearch 2005 Archives
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Increased physical activity reduces prevalence of periodontitis. (J Dent. 2005) "CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that engaging in the recommended level of exercise is associated with lower periodontitis prevalence, especially among never and former smokers."
Influence of Maternal Bone Lead Burden and Calcium Intake on Levels of Lead in Breast Milk over the Course of Lactation (American Journal of Epidemiology 2006) "Dietary calcium supplementation increased the rate of decline in breast milk lead by 5–10%, in comparison with a placebo, over the course of lactation, suggesting that calcium supplementation may constitute an important intervention strategy, albeit with a modest effect, for reducing lead in breast milk and thus the potential for exposure by infants."
Lead Exposure in Children: Prevention, Detection, and Management (PEDIATRICS) "Fatal lead encephalopathy has disappeared and blood lead concentrations have decreased in US children, but approximately 25% still live in housing with deteriorated lead-based paint and are at risk of lead exposure with resulting cognitive impairment and other sequelae. Evidence continues to accrue that commonly encountered blood lead concentrations, even those less than 10 µg/dL, may impair cognition, and there is no threshold yet identified for this effect. Most US children are at sufficient risk that they should have their blood lead concentration measured at least once. There is now evidence-based guidance available for managing children with increased lead exposure. Housing stabilization and repair can interrupt exposure in most cases. …If the blood lead concentration is greater than 45 µg/dL and the exposure has been controlled, treatment with succimer should begin. A pediatrician experienced in managing children with lead poisoning should be consulted; these pediatricians can be found through state health department lead programs, through pediatric environmental health specialty units (www.aoec.org/pehsu.htm), at hospitals that participated in the largest clinical trial of succimer,3 or by calling the local poison control center or the AAP Committee on Environmental Health."
Obesity and the risk of myocardial infarction in 27,000 participants from 52 countries: a case-control study. (Lancet. 2005) "INTERPRETATION: Waist-to-hip ratio shows a graded and highly significant association with myocardial infarction risk worldwide. Redefinition of obesity based on waist-to-hip ratio instead of BMI increases the estimate of myocardial infarction attributable to obesity in most ethnic groups."
Obesity and Vascular Risk Factors at Midlife and the Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer Disease (Arch Neurol. 2005) "Obesity at midlife is associated with an increased risk of dementia and AD later in life. Clustering of vascular risk factors increases the risk in an additive manner."
Volume reduction of the entorhinal cortex in subjective memory impairment. (Neurobiol Aging. 2005) "To examine the biological basis of subjective memory impairment (SMI), defined as the feeling of memory worsening with normal memory performance, we measured the volume of the entorhinal cortex (EC) and the hippocampus in SMI subjects, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy controls (CO). … Our results mirror the temporal sequence of neurodegeneration in AD and support the concept of SMI as the first clinical manifestation of dementia."
Inflammation and Oxidative Stress
C-Reactive Protein Predicts Rapid Progression of Coronary Artery Disease " … the authors write. 'The findings in the present study endorse previous suggestions that inflammation is a crucial factor in atherogenesis and CAD progression and that molecules such as CRP, neopterin, and CAMs [cellular adhesion molecules] may not be just markers of inflammation and cardiovascular risk but also are likely to play a pathogenic role in atheromatous plaque vulnerability and rapid coronary stenosis progression.' "
Detection of Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in human coronary arteries and evaluation of the results with serologic evidence of inflammation. (Saudi Med J. 2005) "OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is pathologically similar to a chronic inflammatory response. Recent reports have suggested that Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis but this relation has not been confirmed on an inflammatory background. … CONCLUSION: Chronic infections modify the serum lipid profile in a way that increases the risk of atherosclerosis. The increased titers of inflammation markers in DNA positive patients support inflammation in atherosclerosis …"
Endothelium and inflammation. (Panminerva Med. 2005) "During the past decade, our understanding of the pathophysiology of coronary heart disease (CAD) has undergone a remarkable evolution. To date atherosclerosis is considered an inflammatory disease, whose the endothelial dysfunction represents an early key event. When the arterial endothelium encounters certain bacterial products or risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, vasoconstrictor hormones involved in hypertension, the products of glycoxidation associated with hyperglycemia, or proinflammatory cytokines derived from excess adipose tissue, these cells increase the expression of adhesion molecules that promote the sticking of blood leukocytes to the inner surface of the arterial wall."
Interactions of C-reactive protein with low-density lipoproteins: Implications for an active role of modified C-reactive protein in atherosclerosis. (Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2005) "The interaction of C-reactive protein with low-density lipoprotein is considered to be one of the key properties that link C-reactive protein with atherosclerosis. However the data obtained to date are controversial, and hence make it difficult to conclude actual physiological or pathological impact of such interaction. … the interaction of modified C-reactive protein with low-density lipoprotein may contribute to the regulation of low-density lipoprotein metabolism and foam cell formation in arterial wall. These results highlight an active role of modified C-reactive protein in atherosclerotic process."
Is atrial fibrillation an inflammatory disorder? (European Heart Journal 2005) "There is mounting evidence to support the influence of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Indeed, AF is associated with increased levels of known inflammatory markers, even after adjustment for confounding factors. The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) appears to play a key role in this process. Atrial biopsies from patients with AF have also confirmed the presence of inflammation. … drug therapies, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, steroids, fish oils, and vitamin C, that might be efficacious in the prevention of AF by modulating inflammatory pathways."
Serum Antioxidants, Inflammation, and Total Mortality in Older Women (American Journal of Epidemiology 2006) "The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been linked to poor health outcomes in older adults. Oxidative stress triggers the production of IL-6, and antioxidant micronutrients play a critical role in decreasing this inflammatory response. The authors sought to identify the relations between serum levels of antioxidant nutrients and IL-6 and mortality in older women. … Those with the lowest levels of - and ß-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, and total carotenoids were significantly more likely to have increasing IL-6 levels over a period of 2 years. Those with the lowest selenium levels had a significantly higher risk of total mortality over a period of 5 years. ... These findings suggest that specific antioxidant nutrients may play an important role in suppressing IL-6 levels in disabled older women."
51pc of hospitals labelled 'too risky' "MORE than half of Australia's hospitals and health facilities have inadequate systems to prevent and review medical errors and ensure patient safety."
FDA Issues Nationwide Notification of Recall of Certain Guidant Implantable Defibrillators and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Defibrillators "FDA is notifying health care providers and patients that the Guidant Corporation is recalling certain of its implantable defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators. These devices can develop an internal short circuit without warning, resulting in failure to deliver a shock when needed."
Fumbled handoffs: one dropped ball after another. (Ann Intern Med. 2005)
Further action taken on COX 2 inhibitors in Europe "The European drugs watchdog, the European Medicines Agency, has recommended the continued suspension of the cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor valdecoxib (Bextra), at the conclusion of its review on the safety of this class of drugs last week."
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