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Cervical Cancer

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Cervical Cancer

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Cervical Cancer

NIH - Medical Encyclopedia Cervical Cancer

"Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix, the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina. … Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women. … Cervical cancers start in the cells on the surface of the cervix. There are two types of cells on the cervix's surface: squamous and columnar. The majority of cervical cancers are from squamous cells. The development of cervical cancer is very slow. It starts as a pre-cancerous condition called dysplasia. This pre-cancerous condition can be detected by a Pap smear and is 100% treatable. That is why it is so important for women to get regular Pap smears … Undetected, pre-cancerous changes can develop into cervical cancer and spread to the bladder, intestines, lungs, and liver. … Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papillomavirus). … Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: • Having sex at an early age • Multiple sexual partners • Sexual partners who have multiple partners or who participate in high-risk sexual activities • Women whose mothers took the drug DES (diethylstilbestrol) during pregnancy in the early 1970s to prevent miscarriage • Long-term use of birth control pills (more than 5 years) • Weakened immune system • Infections with genital herpes or chronic chlamydia infections • Poor economic status (may not be able to afford regular Pap smears)."

Highlighted Articles

[Clearance, persistence and recurrence of HPV infection.] (Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2008) “The longitudinal studies show that "recurrent" HPV infections offer no evidence that the recurrent episode is correlated with reemergence of the same strain or another strain of the same genotype (wild or variant), but the sequential detection of other HPV type is common. The studies offer no evidence of competition between HPV types but frequently show an increased risk of acquisition of new HPV types in patients already infected compared with those who are HPV-negative.”

Prevalence of HPV Infection Among Females in the United States (JAMA. 2007) "Results The overall HPV prevalence was 26.8% … among US females aged 14 to 59 years … HPV prevalence was 24.5% (19.6%-30.5%) among females aged 14 to 19 years, 44.8% (36.3%-55.3%) among women aged 20 to 24 years, 27.4% (21.9%-34.2%) among women aged 25 to 29 years, 27.5% (20.8%-36.4%) among women aged 30 to 39 years, 25.2% (19.7%-32.2%) among women aged 40 to 49 years, and 19.6% (14.3%-26.8%) among women aged 50 to 59 years. There was a statistically significant trend for increasing HPV prevalence with each year of age from 14 to 24 years … followed by a gradual decline in prevalence through 59 years … HPV is common among females in the United States. Our data indicate that the burden of prevalent HPV infection among females was greater than previous estimates and was highest among those aged 20 to 24 years."

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Cervical Cancer

Diagnosis, Imaging, and Screening


Evidence Suggests HPV Testing Not Superior to Conventional Pap Tests

HPV Test Beats Pap for Cervical Cancer Screening

Less Frequent Testing for Cervical Cancer Proposed

Many Doctors Ignore Guidelines, Order Annual Pap Test

Much HPV Testing Completely Unnecessary According To Experts

New Guidelines to Urge Pap Tests Only for Women 20 to 65



Update on sentinel lymph node evaluation in gynecologic malignancies. (Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2011)

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