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ADD - ADHD
NIH - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder "According to the most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders2 (DSM-IV-TR), there are three patterns of behavior that indicate ADHD. People with ADHD may show several signs of being consistently inattentive. They may have a pattern of being hyperactive and impulsive far more than others of their age. Or they may show all three types of behavior. This means that there are three subtypes of ADHD recognized by professionals. These are the predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (that does not show significant inattention); the predominantly inattentive type (that does not show significant hyperactive-impulsive behavior) sometimes called ADD—an outdated term for this entire disorder; and the combined type (that displays both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms)."
NHS - Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) “Symptoms of ADHD in children and adolescents The symptoms of ADHD in children and adolescents are well defined. The main symptoms of each behavioural problem are detailed below. Inattentiveness • a very short attention span, • being very easily distracted, • being unable to stick at tasks that are tedious, or time consuming, • being unable to listen to, or carry out, instructions, • being unable to concentrate, and • constantly changing activity, or task. Hyperactivity • being unable to sit still, especially in calm or quiet surroundings, • constantly fidgeting, • being unable to settle to tasks, and • excessive physical movement. Impulsiveness • being unable to wait for a turn, • acting without thinking, • breaking any set rules, and • little or no sense of danger. If your child has ADHD, their symptoms usually become noticeable at around the age of five. ADHD can cause many problems in your child's life, and can often lead to underachievement at school, poor social interaction with other children and adults, and problems with discipline.“Highlighted Articles
Identifying, Evaluating, Diagnosing, and Treating ADHD in Minority Youth (Journal of Attention Disorders 2008) “Untreated ADHD carries greater risk for substance abuse, impulsive behavior, and legal conflicts, whereas overdiagnosing and overtreating risk stigma associated with mental disorder, growth limitation, and tachycardia or hypertension. This dichotomy is even more perplexing for minority youth, many of whom are disadvantaged and lack access to care. Stressful living circumstances increase the likelihood a minority child will be diagnosed with ADHD (Barbarin & Soler, 1993). Fearing their child will be labeled, minority parents may hesitate to ask for help. … Cultural awareness during the assessment and history gathering is critical for the evaluation of minority youth. There are ADHD scales more appropriate for minority children. In addition, we are learning that children of diversity may not respond to all medications the same way Caucasian children do. The more we learn about genetic variations, the more we are likely to understand why medication alone is not effective in all cases and should not be considered the only treatment tool. Prosocial skills training, psychotherapy for the children, and support for the parents are all key if we want these children to truly succeed.”
ADHD in Children With Comorbid Conditions: Diagnosis, Misdiagnosis, and Keeping Tabs on Both (2007) "There is a complex interplay between ADHD and its commonly occurring comorbid psychiatric disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder (BPD), and substance abuse. Comorbidity greatly influences presentation, diagnosis, and prognosis; complicates treatment; and significantly increases the morbidity and disease burden of ADHD. When ADHD is comorbid with another psychiatric disorder, it is often the first disorder to develop, and children with severe ADHD symptoms have a higher likelihood of developing other psychiatric disorders. When evaluating for comorbid conditions, the clinician should attempt to determine whether one "primary" condition can fully account for the most disabling and distressing symptoms. If a primary condition can fully explain such symptoms, then the other condition should not be diagnosed. For example, if a patient has ADHD symptoms only during episodes of bipolarity, ADHD would not be diagnosed. "
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Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Predict attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? Evidence -based medicine. (Glob J Health Sci. 2013)
Psychosis in adulthood is associated with high rates of ADHD and CD problems during childhood. (Nord J Psychiatry. 2014)
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