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Breast Cancer

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Breast Cancer

NIH - Medical Encyclopedia Breast cancer "There are several different types of breast cancer. Ductal carcinoma begins in the cells lining the ducts that bring milk to the nipple and accounts for more than 75% of breast cancers. Lobular carcinoma begins in the milk-secreting glands of the breast but is otherwise fairly similar in its behavior to ductal carcinoma. Other varieties of breast cancer can arise from the skin, fat, connective tissues, and other cells present in the breast. … Some women have what is known as HER2-positive breast cancer. HER2, short for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, is a gene that helps control cell growth, division, and repair. When cells have too many copies of this gene, cell growth speeds up. It’s believed that HER2 plays a key role in turning healthy cells into cancerous ones. Some women with breast cancer have too much HER2, and are therefore considered HER2-positive. … Some families appear to have a genetic tendency for breast cancer. Two variant genes have been found that appear to account for this: BRCA1 and BRCA2. … The body's reduced ability to get rid of abnormal cells leads to damage that gradually accumulates. Women carrying mutated BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 genes start with pre-existing dysfunction of this system and have a "head start" in this damaging process. Hormones are important because they encourage cell growth. High levels of hormones during a woman's reproductive years, especially when they are not interrupted by the hormonal changes of pregnancy, appear to increase the chances that genetically damaged cells will grow and cause cancer."

Breast lumps: Types of lumps and what they mean "Causes Breast lump causes: Breast cancer Breast cyst Fibroadenoma Fibrocystic changes Hamartoma Injury or trauma to the breast Intraductal papilloma Lipoma Mastitis Milk cyst (galactocele) Phyllodes tumor. "

NIH – Breast Cancer “Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than any cancer except lung cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk factors. Risks that you cannot change include • Age - the chance of getting breast cancer rises as a woman gets older • Genes - there are two genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, that greatly increase the risk. Women who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested. • Personal factors - beginning periods before age 12 or going through menopause after age 55 Other risks include being overweight, using hormone replacement therapy, taking birth control pills, drinking alcohol, not having children or having your first child after age 35 or having dense breasts. Symptoms of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in size or shape of the breast or discharge from a nipple. Breast self-exam and mammography can help find breast cancer early when it is most treatable. Treatment may consist of radiation, lumpectomy, mastectomy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy. “

NHS – Breast Cancer “Types of breast cancer: There are several different types of breast cancer, which can develop in different parts of the breast. The most common is known as ductal breast cancer, which develops in the cells that line the breast ducts. Ductal breast cancer accounts for about 80% of all cases of breast cancer. Other, less common types of breast cancer include lobular breast cancer, which develops in the cells that line the milk-producing lobules, inflammatory breast cancer, and Paget's disease of the breast. It is possible for breast cancer to spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver, bones, or lymph nodes (small glands that filter bacteria from the body). … Symptoms: The main symptom of breast cancer is usually a lump, or thickened area of tissue, in your breast. The majority of breast lumps are found by the women who have them, and it is very important that you are aware of any lumps, or changes in the appearance, feel, or shape of your breasts. This is important because the sooner a cancerous lump is detected, the better the chances are that it will be treated successfully. Changes to look out for You should see your GP if you notice any of the following: • a lump, or thickened area of tissue, in either breast, • discharge from either of your nipples (which may be streaked with blood), • a lump or swelling in either of your armpits,a change in the size, or shape, of one, or both, of your breasts, • dimpling on the skin of your breasts, • a rash on, or around, your nipple,a change in the appearance of your nipple, such as becoming sunken into your breast, or • pain in either of your breasts or armpits which is not related to your period. If you have a lump in your breast, it is important to remember that it may not be the result of breast cancer. In fact, 90% of breast lumps are benign (non-cancerous). For example, a breast lump may be caused by a harmless cyst (a small fluid-filled lump), or fibroadenoma (benign growths that are very common). You may also find that your breasts feel lumpy just before your period. However, if you notice any changes to one, or both, of your breasts, as listed above, you should always get it checked by your GP. “

NHS – Breast Cancer Expert (Video)

NHS – Breast Cancer Screening (Video)

Highlighted Articles

Primary tumor location impacts breast cancer survival. (Am J Surg. 2008) “CONCLUSIONS: Upper-outer quadrant breast cancers have a more favorable survival advantage when compared with tumors in other locations. Factors that negatively impacted survival included high-grade tumors, advanced stage, and race.”

Adulthood Lifetime Physical Activity and Breast Cancer. (Epidemiology. 2008) “Women who increased their recreational activity in their 50s had significantly reduced risk, with those in the highest tertile of change being at a 27% lower risk. CONCLUSIONS:: Leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous activities reduce breast cancer risk irrespective of underlying host characteristics.”

Cruciferous vegetables, the GSTP1 Ile105Val genetic polymorphism, and breast cancer risk. (Am J Clin Nutr. 2008) “CONCLUSIONS: Cruciferous vegetable intake consistent with high isothiocyanate exposure may reduce breast cancer risk. Cruciferous vegetable intake also may ameliorate the effects of the GSTP1 genotype.”

Breast Cancer: Benign Breast Lumps (2007) “Eighty percent of all breast lumps are benign, which means they're not cancerous. Benign breast lumps usually have smooth edges and can be moved slightly when you push against them. They are often found in both breasts.

Mammographic Breast Density as a General Marker of Breast Cancer Risk (Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 2007) "Overall mammographic density seems to represent a general marker of breast cancer risk that is not specific to breast side or location of the eventual cancer."

Lifetime physical activity and the risk of breast cancer: A case-control study. (Cancer Detect Prev. 2007) "Conclusions: These data are in concordance with the hypothesis that lifetime total physical activity is associated with decreased breast cancer risk. They also suggest that recreational physical activity at ages 14-20 years is the most beneficial. In addition, these findings confirm the majority of previous reports which implicated physical inactivity as important risk factor for breast cancer."

Highlighted Internet Sites

NCI - Breast Cancer

NCI – What You Need To Know About Breast Cancer

NCI - Characteristics of Breast Cancer Cases (graphic data)

NIH – Breast Cancer

NCI - Breast Cancer (PDQ®): Prevention

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Breast Cancer Warning Signs

General Information 2000 - 2014 (News, Articles, Journal Articles, Guidelines, Internet Sites)

NEWS:

Breast cancer symptoms confusion "Only 10% look for inversion of the nipple Only 14% look for changes in the skin on the breasts Only 16% check for discharge from the nipple Only 22% look for changes in the appearance of the nipple Only 23% looked for changes in the size or shape of the breast Just over half looked for lumps in the armpit "

Clues for Early Detection of Breast Cancer

ARTICLES:

Breast Cancer Detection and diagnosis

Breast cancer symptoms

Breast Cancer Symptoms

Breast Cancer Symptoms and Diagnosis

Breast Cancer Warning Signs & Risk Factors

Pictures of Breast Cancer

Symptoms of Inflammatory Breast Cancer

Understanding Breast Changes: A Health Guide for All Women "See your health care provider about a breast change when you have: A lump in or near your breast or under your arm. Thick or firm tissue in or near your breast or under your arm. Nipple discharge or tenderness. A nipple pulled back (inverted) into the breast. Itching or skin changes such as redness, scales, dimples, or puckers. A change in breast size or shape. If you notice a lump in one breast, check the other breast. If both breasts feel the same, it may be normal. You should still see your health care provider for a clinical breast exam to see if more tests are needed."

What are the Signs of Breast Cancer?

Wrong Diagnosis - Symptoms of Breast Cancer

JOURNAL ARTICLES:

Adenoma of the nipple in an adolescent. (Breast Cancer. 2002)

Breast cancer presenting as unilateral arm edema. (J Gen Intern Med. 2007)

Breast cancer surveillance in women with hereditary risk due to BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. (Clin Breast Cancer. 2004)

[Diagnostic management of nipple discharge] (Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2003)

Diagnostic value of nipple cytology: study of 466 cases. (Cancer. 2004)

Early breast cancer detection. (Minerva Ginecol. 2005)

Importance of physical examination in the absence of a mammographic abnormality for the detection of early-stage breast cancer. (Clin Breast Cancer. 2005)

Pathologic breast conditions in childhood and adolescence: evaluation by sonographic diagnosis. (J Ultrasound Med. 2005)

Pathologic nipple discharge: surgery is imperative in postmenopausal women. (Ann Surg Oncol. 2005)

Patients with Paget disease of nipple and with palpable mass in breast have unfavorable prognosis. (J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2004)

[Physical breast examination] (Wiad Lek. 2004)

Rate of Breast Cancer Diagnoses Among Postmenopausal Women With Self-Reported Breast Symptoms (J Am Board Fam Pract. 2005) "Approximately 70% to 80% of diagnostic mammographic examinations involve women who present with a breast problem;[1,2] however, only 8% to 12% of these women go on to develop breast cancer.[3-7] Although the prevalence of breast cancer diagnoses among women with symptoms is low, failure to diagnose breast cancer is one of the most common causes of malpractice claims. Malpractice claims are often associated with a story that the clinician ends a work-up of a palpable lump with a negative mammogram.[8,9]] Knowing which breast symptoms carry the highest breast cancer risk is important to assisting in the diagnosis of breast cancer. ... Conclusions: Having a lump is the most predictive symptom of breast cancer whether it is reported at a screening or diagnostic examination or in conjunction with other symptoms."

Syringomatous adenoma of the nipple: a case report. (Pathol Res Pract. 2005)

The association of bloody nipple discharge with breast pathology. (Surgery. 2004)

Woman feels breast lump--surgeon cannot: the role of ultrasound in arbitration. (Eur J Cancer. 2004)

GUIDELINES:

NGC - Breast masses. (2005)

NGC - Diagnosis of breast disease. (2003)

INTERNET SITES:

NCI - Breast Cancer Symptoms

NCI - Understanding Breast Changes: A Health Guide for All Women

NIH - Breast Lumps - Biopsy Tutorial

NIH - Medline Plus Breast Cancer Tutorial

 

 

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