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Lung Cancer


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Lung Cancer

NIH - Medical Encyclopedia Lung cancer - non-small cell “Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. It usually grows and spreads more slowly than small cell lung cancer. There are three forms of NSCLC: • Adenocarcinomas are often found in an outer area of the lung. • Squamous cell carcinomas are usually found in the center of the lung by an air tube (bronchus). • Large cell carcinomas can occur in any part of the lung. They tend to grow and spread faster than the other two types. Causes - Smoking causes most cases of lung cancer. Being around the smoke from others (secondhand smoke) also raises your risk for lung cancer. However, people who do not smoke and have never smoked have become sick with lung cancer. A review of decades of research has recently shown that smoking marijuana may help cancer cells grow, but there is no direct link between the drug and lung cancer. High levels of air pollution, working with or near cancer-causing chemicals or materials (such as asbestos), and drinking water containing high levels of arsenic can increase your risk for lung cancer. Radiation therapy to the lungs can also increase the risk.”

NIH - Medical Encyclopedia Lung cancer - small cell “Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a fast-growing type of lung cancer. It tends to spread much more quickly than non-small cell lung cancer. There are three different types of small cell lung cancer: • Small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer) • Mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma • Combined small cell carcinoma Most small cell lung cancers are the oat cell type. About 15% of all lung cancer cases are small cell lung cancer, according to the American Cancer Society. Small cell lung cancer is a bit more common in men than women. Causes - Smoking almost always causes small cell lung cancer. This type of lung cancer is rare in those who have never smoked. Small cell lung cancer usually starts in the air tubes (bronchi) in the center of the chest. Although the cancer cells are small, they grow quickly and create large masses (tumors) that can rapidly spread to other parts of the body, including the brain, liver, and bone.”

Mayo Clinic Lung Cancer "Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, among both men and women. It claims more lives than colon, prostate, lymph and breast cancer combined. Yet most of these lung cancer deaths could have been prevented. That's because smoking accounts for nearly 90 percent of lung cancer cases. … Because lung cancer doesn't cause signs or symptoms in its earliest stages, it's often advanced by the time it's diagnosed. When symptoms do occur, the most common warning sign is a cough, which occurs when a tumor irritates the lining of the airways or blocks the passage of air. In addition to a new cough, be alert for: • "Smoker's cough" that worsens • Coughing up blood, even a small amount • Chest pain • Shortness of breath • New onset of wheezing • Repeated bouts of pneumonia or bronchitis • Hoarseness that lasts more than two weeks Lung cancer also may cause fatigue, loss of appetite and weight loss. If it has spread to other parts of your body (metastasized), you may have headaches or bone pain."

NHS - Lung cancer (Video) “Smoking is the most common cause of lung cancer. Around 90% of cases are due to smoking. Other causes include passive smoking and exposure to certain gases and chemicals. Primary and secondary lung cancer This article deals only with primary lung cancer. Primary lung cancer is cancer that originates in the lungs. Secondary lung cancer is cancer which starts in another part of the body and then spreads to the lungs. Types of primary lung cancer There are two main types of primary lung cancer - small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Around 80% of cases are non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer includes three types: • squamous cell carcinoma, • adenocarcinoma, and • large cell carcinoma. Small cell and non-small cell lung cancers are treated in different ways. Therefore, it is very important that you have a number of tests, so that the exact type of cancer can be diagnosed. Around 10% of people with lung cancer will be cured (live for five years without the cancer returning). There are many treatments available which can reduce the effects of lung cancer, and slow down its progress, therefore improving your quality of life. “

Highlighted Articles

Non-small cell lung cancer: epidemiology, risk factors, treatment, and survivorship. (Mayo Clin Proc. 2008) “Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for 85% of all lung cancer cases in the United States. After the initial diagnosis, accurate staging of non-small cell lung cancer using computed tomography or positron emission tomography is crucial for determining appropriate therapy. When feasible, surgical resection remains the single most consistent and successful option for cure. However, close to 70% of patients with lung cancer present with locally advanced or metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Chemotherapy is beneficial for patients with metastatic disease, and the administration of concurrent chemotherapy and radiation is indicated for stage III lung cancer.”

Fruits, Vegetables And Teas May Protect Smokers From Lung Cancer, Researchers Report (2008) “UCLA researchers found that smokers who ingested high levels of natural chemicals called flavonoids in their diet had a lower risk of developing lung cancer, an important finding since more than 90 percent of lung cancers are caused by tobacco smoking.“

CancerHelp UK - Types of lung cancer "There are important differences between lung cancer that started in the lungs and lung cancer that has spread to the lung from another part of the body. … Primary lung cancer (cancer that has started in the lungs) "There are several different types of primary lung cancer. These are divided into two main types • Small cell lung cancer • Non-small cell lung cancer ... Secondary lung cancer (cancer that has spread to the lungs) Secondary cancer is cancer that has spread from somewhere else in the body. There are quite a few different cancers that can spread to the lungs, including breast cancer and bowel cancer"

Knee Pain May Signal Lung Cancer (2007)"Heavy smokers with knee arthritis may be experiencing an early sign of a difficult-to-treat lung cancer, research shows. … About 85 percent of all lung cancers are non-small cell lung cancer, according to the American Cancer Society. Unless it is caught early, non-small cell lung cancer is difficult to treat. It spreads to the bones in one in five cases and is well advanced by the time it is diagnosed in half of all cases."

[The epidemiology of lung cancer.] (Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2007) "Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality in males and females. In the Europe lung cancer accounts for 21% of all cancer cases in males and 29% of all cancer deaths."

Highlighted Internet Sites

NCI – Lung Cancer

NCI – What You Need To Know About Lung Cancer

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Lung Cancer





Incidence of brain metastasis at initial presentation of lung cancer. (Neuro Oncol. 2014 )


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