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Peripheral Arterial Disease

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NIH - What Is Peripheral Arterial Disease? “Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) occurs when a fatty material called plaque (plak) builds up on the inside walls of the arteries that carry blood from the heart to the head, internal organs, and limbs. PAD is also known as atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease. The buildup of plaque on the artery walls is called atherosclerosis (ath-er-o-skler-O-sis), or hardening of the arteries. Atherosclerosis causes the arteries to narrow or become blocked, which can reduce or block blood flow. PAD most commonly affects blood flow to the legs. Blocked blood flow can cause pain and numbness. It also can increase a person's chance of getting an infection, and it can make it difficult for the person's body to fight the infection. If severe enough, blocked blood flow can cause tissue death (gangrene). PAD is the leading cause of leg amputation. … A person with PAD has a six to seven times greater risk of CAD, heart attack, stroke, or transient ischemic attack ("mini stroke") than the rest of the population. If a person has heart disease, he or she has a 1 in 3 chance of having blocked arteries in the legs. Early diagnosis and treatment of PAD, including screening high-risk individuals, are important to prevent disability and save lives. PAD treatment may stop the disease from progressing and reduce the risk of heart attack, heart disease, and stroke. Although PAD is serious, it is treatable. The buildup of plaque in the arteries can often be stopped or reversed with dietary changes, exercise, and efforts to lower high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure. In some patients, blood flow in the vessels may be improved by medicines or surgery. “

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Association between ankle - brachial index and risk factor profile in patients newly diagnosed with intermittent claudication. (Circ J. 2008) “Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects up to 20% of adults older than 55 years and is associated with silent or symptomatic arterial disease in other vascular beds.1–3 Although the majority of PAD patients are asymptomatic with a low rate of local symptoms and complications, both symptomatic and asymptomatic PAD patients carry a higher risk for vascular events. PAD is considered as a coronary heart disease (CHD) equivalent and is characterized by high mortality rates (approximately 25–30% within 5 years for patients with symptomatic PAD), mainly from stroke and myocardial infarction.”

Peripheral Arterial Disease -- A Cardiovascular Time Bomb (Br J Diabetes Vasc Dis. 2007) “People with PAD are six times more likely to die from cardiovascular disease within 10 years than people without PAD. Evidence suggests that aggressive risk factor management will prevent many premature deaths and associated morbidity. Therefore, it is vital to identify patients and initiate effective management strategies swiftly. However, whilst 40% of PAD patients have symptomatic disease ranging from intermittent claudication to critical limb ischaemia, around 60% are asymptomatic. As a result of the low rates of detection PAD is underdiagnosed and undertreated in the UK.”

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NIH - Peripheral Arterial Disease

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Peripheral Arterial Disease

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Family History of Peripheral Artery Disease is associated with Prevalence and Severity of Peripheral Artery Disease: The San Diego Population Study (SDPS) (Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2011)

Metabolic syndrome in patients with peripheral arterial disease. (Rev Clin Esp. 2014 )



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