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Diabetes Mellitus Type II

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NIH - Diabetes (Medical Encyclopedia) Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1 and makes up 90% or more of all cases of diabetes. It usually occurs in adulthood. Here, the pancreas does not make enough insulin to keep blood glucose levels normal, often because the body does not respond well to the insulin. Many people with type 2 diabetes do not know they have it, although it is a serious condition. Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common due to the growing number of older Americans, increasing obesity, and failure to exercise. … Unlike type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes may respond to treatment with exercise, diet, and/or oral medications. … Some people with type 2 diabetes find they no longer need medication if they lose weight and increase activity, because when their ideal weight is reached, their own insulin and a careful diet can control their blood glucose levels."

NHS – Diabetes (Video)

NHS - Diabetes: the facts “Symptoms of diabetes The symptoms of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes include: • Increased thirst, and drinking a lot of fluids. • Passing a lot of urine. • Being tired for no reason. • Weight loss. • Genital itching or repeated bouts of thrush. • Slow healing of wounds. • Blurred vision. In type 1 diabetes, symptoms will typically develop over a few weeks and quickly become very obvious. In type 2, symptoms can develop more slowly, over a period of months. Some people with type 2 diabetes have only very mild symptoms, which they believe have other causes. A few people may have no symptoms at all. … Types of diabetes There are two main types of diabetes. • Type 1: in this type, the body can't produce any insulin. This type of diabetes usually occurs before age 40, and accounts for only around 10% of all cases. But it is the most common form of childhood diabetes. • Type 2: this is where the body doesn't make enough insulin, or where the body builds up a resistance to insulin so that it doesn't work effectively. It's the most common form of diabetes (90% of all cases), and is frequently linked with being overweight. One in 10 people in the UK will eventually develop type 2 diabetes.”

Highlighted Articles

Diabetes Seems to Heighten Glaucoma Risk: Regular screenings may help prevent irreversible nerve damage (2008) "A recent study in the journal Ophthalmology found that women with diabetes have about a 70 percent increased risk of developing the most common form of glaucoma -- primary open-angle glaucoma -- compared to women without diabetes."

Researchers report periodontal disease independently predicts new onset diabetes (2008) “These data add a new twist to the association and suggest that periodontal disease may be there before diabetes," said Ryan T. Demmer, PhD, MPH, associate research scientist in the Department of Epidemiology at the Mailman School of Public Health and lead author. "We found that over two decades of follow-up, individuals who had periodontal disease were more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes later in life when compared to individuals without periodontal disease." “

Intake of Fruit, Vegetables, and Fruit Juices and Risk of Diabetes in Women (Diabetes Care 2008) “CONCLUSIONS—Consumption of green leafy vegetables and fruit was associated with a lower hazard of diabetes, whereas consumption of fruit juices may be associated with an increased hazard among women.”

Diabetic Neuropathy--A Review (Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2007) "Diabetic neuropathy is the most common neuropathy in industrialized countries, and it is associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations. The vast majority of patients with clinical diabetic neuropathy have a distal symmetrical form of the disorder that progresses following a fiber-length-dependent pattern, with sensory and autonomic manifestations predominating. This pattern of neuropathy is associated with a progressive distal axonopathy. Patients experience pain, trophic changes in the feet, and autonomic disturbances. Occasionally, patients with diabetes can develop focal and multifocal neuropathies that include cranial nerve involvement and limb and truncal neuropathies."

Adiposity Compared With Physical Inactivity and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Women (Diabetes Care 2007) "CONCLUSIONS—Obesity and physical inactivity independently contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes; however, the magnitude of risk contributed by obesity is much greater than that imparted by lack of physical activity."

Walking for exercise--does three times per week influence risk factors in type 2 diabetes? (Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006) "Our results suggest that an increase of regular physical activity equivalent to 45 min of walking 3 days/week may suffice to improve systolic and diastolic blood pressure, lipid metabolism and BMI in patients with type 2 diabetes."

Health Problems That Diabetes Can Cause

Internet Sites

NIH - NIDDK Diabetes

NIH - Diabetes

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Diabetes Mellitus Type II

General Information


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The epidemic of pre-diabetes: the medicine and the politics


Body Mass Index and the Risk of All-Cause Mortality Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Circulation 2014)

Combined effects of type 2 diabetes and hypertension associated with cortical thinning and impaired cerebrovascular reactivity relative to hypertension alone in older adults. (Neuroimage Clin. 2014)

Fried-food consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease: a prospective study in 2 cohorts of US women and men. (Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jun 18. pii: ajcn.084129. [Epub ahead of print])

High sodium intake in women with metabolic syndrome. (Korean Circ J. 2014)

Hypertensive target organ damage predicts incident diabetes mellitus. (Eur Heart J. 2013)

Is there an association between diabetic neuropathy and low vitamin d levels? (Curr Diab Rep. 2014)

Low Levels of 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D and Active 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Independently Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Older Australian Men: The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2014)

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