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Sexually Transmitted Diseases

NHS – Chlamydia (Video - Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the UK. Toni Belfield gives advice on who's at risk, where to get tested and what the treatment involves)

NIH - Sexually Transmitted Diseases “Also called: Sexually transmitted infections, STDs, Venereal disease Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes of STDs are bacteria, parasites and viruses. There are more than 20 types of STDs, including • Chlamydia • Gonorrhea • Herpes Simplex • HIV/AIDS • HPV • Syphilis • Trichomoniasis Most STDs affect both men and women, but in many cases the health problems they cause can be more severe for women. If a pregnant woman has an STD, it can cause serious health problems for the baby. If you have an STD caused by bacteria or parasites, your health care provider can treat it with antibiotics or other medicines. If you have an STD caused by a virus, there is no cure. Sometimes medicines can keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading STDs.”

NIH - Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) “What are the different types of STDs? Researchers have identified more than 20 different kinds of STDs, which can fall into two main groups: STDs caused by bacteria - These diseases can be treated and often cured with antibiotics. Some bacterial STDs include: chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and syphilis. STDs caused by viruses - These diseases can be controlled, but not cured. If you get a viral STD, you will always have it. Some viral STDs include: HIV/AIDS, genital herpes, genital warts, human papilloma virus (HPV), hepatitis B virus, and cytomegalovirus. What are the symptoms of STDs? The symptoms vary among the different types of STDs. Some examples of common symptoms include: Unusual discharge from the penis or vagina Sores or warts on the genital area Burning while urinating Itching and redness in the genital area Anal itching, soreness, or bleeding “

NHS - Sexually transmitted infections “Most conditions vary in their symptoms but the most common are listed below: Chlamydia In women, genital chlamydial infection often does not cause any symptoms. However, there may be non-specific symptoms such as cystitis, a change in the vaginal discharge, or mild lower abdominal pain. Men with chlamydia commonly experience a urethral discharge from the penis, and may have inflammation of the tube leading from the bladder to the tip of the penis (urethritis), or of the tube leading from the testes to the penis (epidymitis). This discomfort may then disappear but the infection can still be passed on to a sexual partner. Genital warts Many people who get the virus that leads to genital warts do not show any recognisable symptoms, and this is why the infection can go undiagnosed for a long time. However, if symptoms are present, they may include small white spots or lumps that are hidden inside the vagina or anus. Genital herpes Like genital warts, genital herpes is a condition that often presents no symptoms and can remain undiagnosed for long periods of time. Symptoms may show in the form of flu-like symptoms, itchiness, burning or tingling around the genitals, small, fluid-filled blisters that burst to leave sores, and pain when passing urine. Gonorrhoea Gonorrhoea is an infection that is found in both sexes and can affect the genitals, anus, rectum and throat. About half of all women infected with gonorrhoea, and over 90% of men experience symptoms, including a thin, watery discharge from the vagina or tip of the penis that can appear yellow or green, and pain when urinating. Syphilis The symptoms of syphilis usually begin with a small sore on the penis or vagina. Up to six months after the initial symptoms occur, you may experience flu-like symptoms, such as aching and shivering. HIV Many people do not develop any symptoms when they first become infected with HIV. Some people, however, get a flu-like illness within three to six weeks after exposure to the virus. The only way to know if you are HIV-positive is to have a test. Over time, infection with HIV weakens the immune system leading to difficulty fighting off certain infections. Non-specific urethritis Non-specific urethritis is an STI that affects men. It causes discomfort of the urethra (the tube that leads from the bladder to the tip of the penis, along which urine is passed), and a urethral discharge is also common. Trichomoniasis Trichomoniasis is an infection of the genitals that is caused by the bacterium trichomonas vaginalis (TV). The condition often has no symptoms, but symptoms may include a yellow or green discharge from the vagina with soreness. Men usually act as carriers and do not show symptoms. Pubic lice Symptoms of pubic lice include itchy skin, and you may notice black powder (lice droppings) in your underwear and white eggs. Scabies Scabies can occur anywhere on the body, but sometimes the signs are hard to see. Symptoms can appear weeks after first contact and include itching (especially at night), a rash, and tiny spots. Thrush Symptoms of thrush include intense itching around your penis or vagina, with a thick, white discharge, and the appearance of tiny white spots around the genitals. “

NHS (UK) Video: STIs and you

NHS - Teens and STIs (Video)

NHS - Condom negotiation (Video)

NHS - HIV and AIDS (Video)

NIH - Sexually Transmitted Diseases – Multiple Languages “ Bosnian (Bosanski), Japanese, Somali (af Soomaali), Chinese - Simplified, Korean, Spanish (español), French (français), Portuguese (português), Tagalog (Tagalog), Hindi, Russian, Ukrainian“

Highlighted Articles

Regular chlamydia tests urged for young people “Young sexually active people should get themselves tested annually for the infection chlamydia and again every time they change partner, the Health Protection Agency said on Tuesday. Everyone should use a condom with a new partner until both have been screened, the agency warned as it published figures showing the number of sexual diseases diagnosed in Britain rose 6 percent last year. Young people were disproportionately affected, said Peter Borriello, Director of the HPA's Centre for Infections. "Substantial numbers of young people remain undiagnosed, untreated and unaware of the risk they pose both to their own health and that of their sexual partner," he added. People aged 18-24 form just one in eight of the population but account for around half of all newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the UK.”

Repeat chlamydia infection common in girls “Because chlamydia often causes no symptoms or only mild ones, experts recommend that all sexually active women age 25 or younger be tested for the infection once a year. Those who test positive should be tested again 3 months later to catch any repeat infection. The current findings underscore the importance of frequently re-testing in adolescents, especially when there is a history of chlamydia, according to the researchers, led by Dr. Charlotte A. Gaydos of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. The results also suggest that school-based health clinics are a good place to offer these tests.“

Genital herpes. (Lancet. 2008) “Most genital HSV-2 infections are unrecognised and undiagnosed; infected individuals, even with mild symptoms, shed HSV, and can infect sexual partners. Since clinical diagnosis is neither sensitive nor specific, virological and type-specific serological tests should be used routinely. Oral antiviral drugs for HSV infections are safe and effective and can be used both to treat episodes and to prevent recurrences. Antiviral treatment of the infected partners and condom use reduce the risk of sexual transmission of HSV-2.”

Gonococcemia “Gonococcemia is defined as the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the bloodstream, which can lead to the development of disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI). Gonorrhea is the second most often reported sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the United States behind chlamydia. About 600,000 people each year in the United States are infected, with only about half being reported.1 Gonococcemia occurs in about 0.5-3% of patients with gonorrhea. The clinical manifestations of this process are biphasic, with an early bacteremic phase consisting of tenosynovitis, arthralgias,2 and dermatitis, followed by a localized phase consisting of localized septic arthritis. Other potentially severe clinical complications include osteomyelitis, meningitis, endocarditis, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS),3, 4 and fatal septic shock.5 Polymyositis is also a rare complication of gonococcemia. Patients who are pregnant or menstruating may be particularly prone to gonococcemia. Other populations that are at risk of infection include women and those with complement deficiencies, HIV, or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). DGI is an important, potentially life-threatening, and easily treatable clinical entity that remains the most common cause of acute septic arthritis in young sexually active adults.“

Internet Sites

NHS (UK) - Sexually transmitted infections: Useful Links

NHS - Condoms: know the facts

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Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

General Information


Nearly 5 Percent of Young U.S. Women Have Chlamydia: CDC

Only 3 in 10 Americans With HIV Have Virus Suppressed: CDC

Study Shows Men Can Get Oral HPV Infection From Women

Tobacco Tied to Higher Risk of Oral HPV Infection, Study Finds



HPV Vaccine, Is It Really Harmful? (J Korean Med Sci. 2014)

Number of External Anogenital Warts is Associated with the Occurrence of Abnormal Cervical Cytology. (Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014)

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