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Defining the Parkinson's disease phenotype: initial symptoms and baseline characteristics in a clinical cohort. (Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2005) " OBJECTIVES: Examine the demographic and historical characteristics of a large Parkinson's disease (PD) clinical cohort and determine the pattern and relationship between initial symptoms of PD and physical examination ratings at the initial subspecialty clinic visit. Ä "RESULTS: The overall sample was predominantly right-handed (92%) male (67%), with a mean age of 70 years and symptomatic disease duration of about 7 years. About 25% of the sample reported a positive family history of a neurodegenerative disorder. Tremor (47%) and bradykinesia (29%) were the two most common initial symptoms of PD and occurred primarily in the upper extremities (68%)."
Heterogeneity of Parkinson's disease in the early clinical stages using a data driven approach. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005) "OBJECTIVE: To investigate the heterogeneity of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) in a data driven manner among a cohort of patients in the early clinical stages of the disease meeting established diagnostic criteria. Ä RESULTS: The analysis revealed four main subgroups: (a) patients with a younger disease onset; (b) a tremor dominant subgroup of patients; (c) a non-tremor dominant subgroup with significant levels of cognitive impairment and mild depression; and (d) a subgroup with rapid disease progression but no cognitive impairment."